Romanian Căluș originated as a healing and fertility ritual performed by groups of an odd number of men, bound together by an oath. This custom formed part of the agrarian custom cycle, although its exact origins have never been established. This paper examines the symbolisms of the Romanian Căluș tradition in its village setting and looks at the changes that took place in these symbolisms during its transformation from a village ritual to a national icon. Finally, I investigate the position that the Căluș tradition holds today among Romanians within Romania and in the diaspora. The conclusion from my investigation is that much of the traditional symbolism has been lost but this has been replaced by new symbolisms associated with community, nationalism and Romanian identity.
Mellish, Liz (2006). The Romanian Căluș tradition and its changing symbolism as it travels from the village to the global platform. Online: https://eliznik.me.uk/wp-content/uploads/articles/The-Romanian-Calus-tradition-and-its-changing-symbolism-2006.pdf